Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. They believed that if the Dutch were seen by the Holy Roman Empire to be getting involved militarily in the conflict, it could lead to an invasion of the United Provinces by a Imperial army and that could spell disaster for the Dutch economy. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In October 1639, the Dutch had beaten a Spanish fleet at the Battle of the Downs. History Learning Site Copyright © 2000 - 2021. The Thirty Years' War was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany.It originated in the commingling of politics and religion that was common in Europe at the time. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), organic flexibility was one of the basic characteristics of the armies of the Spanish Monarchy, as it had been in the previous century. She had proclaimed herself as the saviour against the domination of Europe by the Holy Roman Emperor, but how could a nation that had been invaded warrant the status of protector of European liberties ? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Bohemian phase from 1618 to 1625 was sparked by the defenestration of Prague. The stratagem failed: on May 19, 1635, France declared war only on Spain. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. The conflict left some areas of Germany and Bohemia denuded of half their population, while other provinces paid huge ransoms to approaching armies—of whichever side—to deflect the war elsewhere, escape with their lives, and keep town, livestock, and farms intact. Two naval battles supported their view that the Habsburg’s could not succeed at sea. Catholic fought Catholic and Protestant killed Protestant while each murdered, raped, tortured, and burned out the other, spreading famine, pestilence, refugees, cruelty, and death through the heart of Europe. This threat persuaded Richelieu that France must enter the war directly at long last, that fighting the Habsburgs through subsidized proxies was no longer enough. Bohemian Phase: Definition. France also had success in north Italy where Bernard of Weimar successfully besieged Breisach after defeating the Holy Roman Empire’s army at Rheinfelden. The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe from 1618-1648. The Cardinal had put up a stubborn campaign on the land but the defeat of the Spanish navy at the Battle of the Downs, meant that he could no longer be supplied by sea and the Spanish campaign in Flanders dwindled. France was not in such a favourable position and Richelieu had to raise loans, sell government offices to the highest bidder (though not necessarily the most talented) and to place government tax inspectors (Intendants) on permanent location in the provinces to ensure that taxes that were due for Paris actually got there. Thirty Years War: The Franco-Swedish Period France entered openly into the war in 1635. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. 1618-21 Bohemian Revolt; 1621-24 Palatinate phase; 1625-29 Danish intervention; 1630-35 Swedish intervention; 1636-48 French intervention; The following Timeline just lists the major battles. The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. France in the mid-1630’s was fearful of a strong and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire. And so, for 13 years more the armies battled. French military involvement in the Thirty Years War got off to a poor start. Granted, the French had a bit of help from the Swedes, who had switched roles from fighter to financier. In April 1635, Sweden and France signed the Treaty of Compiegne. The French Phase; The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) Right after the defenestration of Prague the fighting begins between the Catho- lics and Protestants. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? Play this game to review World History. Learn how your comment data is processed. These include the Bohemian Phase, the Danish Phase, The Swedish Phase and the French Phase. French intervention—which guaranteed a great widening of the war— occurred just as Ferdinand and the German princes reached an accommodation that might have ended it: the Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635). It did not enter the war as a Catholic power, as Richelieu had already signed offensive treaties with Protestant Sweden and the Netherlands in expectation of fighting Catholic Austria and Spain. 30 seconds . Though the attack on France failed, the prestige of France as a nation had suffered. The end of the Thirty Years' War left Hapsburg Spain isolated. Tercios were, above all, groups of a number of companies that could be attached or detached at all times. An Imperial army lead by Gallas attacked through the Vosges and Phillip IV of Spain lead an attack from the South. The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline. For four years France pursued these grand strategic goals with an inadequate military system, with poor armies badly led by inept generals. Emperor Ferdinand II won the support of Maximilian I of Bavaria. However, Sweden was too poor to continue the campaign against Ferdinand by herself. The stunning Swedish defeat at Nördlingen confirmed Imperial control of southwest Germany and seemed to re-close a strategic ring of Habsburg lands around the perimeter of France that had been broken by Gustavus. France was also out-of-touch with the more modern methods of fighting that were coming to the surface in the Thirty Years War. In addition, the anti-Habsburg coalition did not agree on what sort of peace it should force on the Habsburg powers, with Sweden concentrating on the German war and desperate for territorial and financial compensation for its ruinous military effort and France more concerned with defeating Spain. Thirty Years' War: Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648) Louis XIII was the only ruler who wanted the war to continue - in order to diminish Habsburg power even more. Entire cities were put to the sword out of revenge or reprisal. Over 200 states of varying sizes fought in the war; causing Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to note that … The Thirty Years’ War is divided into FOUR PHASES: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French.The Bohemian Phase was purely a local, religious conflict. The Peace of Prague, arranged on Ferdinand’s terms, alarmed France, Sweden and the United Provinces. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. Holy Roman Empire promised tolerance of Protestantism in Hungary after more Habsburg defeats in 1645. However, the Dutch had set their eyes on a naval success especially in the New World where Habsburg property was vulnerable to attack. The French Phase
1634 – 1648
The French were threatened by the growing strength of the Habsburgs
France declared war on Spain and increased its pressure on the H.R.E.
The French and Swedish gained much land during the later years of this phase
10. Though a German state, Trier had been under French protection since 1631. The 30 Years War can be divided into five major phases:. Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. In the last phase of the Thirty Years’ War, the most dominant player on the Protestant side was Catholic France. https://great-home-decorations.com/the-30-years-war-catholics-vs-protestants The Thirty Years War was the last religious war in Europe, and was also the bloodiest war to affect the continent before the twentieth century. The Cardinal-Infante attacked through Picardy. Spain appeared to outsiders to be collapsing from within. Thirty Years’ War – French Phase, 1635–1648 Posted on May 29, 2016 Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). Swedish phase. During the fourth phase (1635-48), the war was waged by the Swedish and French against Germany. In 1642, Phillip IV tried to crush the Catalan rebellion but failed. The Catalonians also rebelled against the domination of Castille in Spanish politics and a joint Catalan-French army defeated the Castillians outside of Barcelona in January 1641. In January 1640, a combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet had been beaten at the Battle of Pernambuco, again by the Dutch. The Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War thus ended with a Hapsburg and Catholic victory. The Thirty years war was made up of many different wars, to understand it better I will be grouping them into 4 phases. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, … The Cardinal-Infante was especially successful and many Parisians feared that their city would be occupied. France, therefore, needed alliances. The assault on Trier was designed to trigger war between France and the Holy Roman Empire. In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavari commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The fourteen years of the French phase of the war eventually ended in exhaustion, Germany in particular having suffered year after year of campaigning. The Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648) France enters the war and dominates. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. Why? France failed to capitalise on these problems as in December 1642, Richelieu had died, closely followed by Louis XIII in May 1643. 11. Not every German prince waited: in July 1641, Friedrich Wilhelm (1640– 1688), the new ‘‘Great Elector’’ of Brandenburg, agreed to a ceasefire with Sweden; in January 1642, the Welf dukes of Brunswick also dropped out of the war (Treaty of Goslar). The Spanish themselves were also experiencing problems at home. Here, they duly elected his son, Ferdinand, King of the Romans. SURVEY . THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic War. At Wittstock (October 4, 1636), the Imperial Army lost heavily to the Swedes, so that once more the balance of power swung (as it had in the other direction after Nördlingen) and new hope for victory was raised among the Protestant princes of Europe. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. In March 1635, France had once again cut off the Valtelline. Choose from 500 different sets of 30 years war flashcards on Quizlet. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. The Causes of the Thirty Years War 1618-48 The Thirty Years War consistently features on lists of major conflicts in world history. ( Log Out /  Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. In 1640-41, the Portuguese rebelled against Spain. ( Log Out /  Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686). The Protestants were mostly Czechs which makes sense since most of them were in Prague. Rohan was abandoned by the Swiss rebels and had to withdraw to France. What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. ( Log Out /  The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War by Brennan C. … These defections freed Swedish general Lennart Torstensson to invade Moravia and Silesia. In October 1635, Bernard of Weimar and his army were taken into French service. Thirty Years War: The Danish Period. France had to endure a three-pronged attack. However, the ‘‘German war’’ was no longer solely a German affair: it was a general war involving all the major powers, which meant it could not be ended by a settlement crafted by Germans alone. She had an inadequate supply of men, money and commanders to sustain a long military campaign. … Q. This Regency was lead by Anne of Austria, the Queen Mother, and the Italian, Mazarin. The History Learning Site, 25 Mar 2015. To sustain the above, Richelieu needed favourable finances. As the war drew to a drawn-out and exhausted close, the armies engaged shrank in size. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. The majority of the citizens from the Bohemian Kingdom were Protestants. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. Gallas had to leave the French campaign and confront the Swedes. Because neither the empire nor the Protestants could deliver the knockout punch, the fighting dragged on and on. 462 times. Change ). With Catholicism secure in France following Richelieu’s crushing of the last Huguenot military resistance in 1628, France was free to act for raison d’etat (reason of state) against the Habsburg powers rather than out of delusional confessional loyalty. The military prospects of France were not good. The Spanish made timely and generous concessions to the Swiss Protestants in the Valtelline and therefore stability was brought back to the area. By 1640, France had two very capable military commanders : Turenne and Louis II, Prince of Conde. Louis XIII was simply pre-empting the inevitable : attack before France itself was attacked. Alsace also fell to Bernard and when he died in July 19639, his army came under the direct control of the French. Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne (11 September 1611, Sedan, Ardennes – 27 July 1675). Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. Its distal causes reside in the previous century, at the political-religious settlement of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Peace of Augsburg. Danish phase. The new king, Louis XVI, was only four years of age and a Regency had to be established. The French war against Spain continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It was not until the early 1640s that France settled on sound commanders and fielded well-trained armies capable of winning the war. They marauded over Germany, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Italy, and France, sacking cities and terrorizing populations as they battened off and burned the land. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). Sweden wanted to gain more territory to pay for her expenses up to the Peace and she decided to carry on fighting. Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). No-one throughout Europe was particularly surprised by this as in October 1634, the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and the Roman Catholic princes of Germany had agreed to a joint attack on France. The Swedes followed up with a victory over the Saxons at Chemnitz (April 14, 1638) and occupation of Bohemia. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. In 1636, came the expected attack on France by the major catholic powers of Europe. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. ... French phase. There had been a general European desire for peace since 1640, but no one country was prepared to give up hard-won gains. It started as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states following the fragmenting of the Holy Roman Empire, but it turned into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming a war for European political pre-eminence.. Like any new emperor or king, Ferdinand had to proved himself but his start was less than auspicious. The Peace of Westphalia (24 October 1648), which ended the war, saw Hapsburg power much reduced. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by Ferdinand. Learn 30 years war with free interactive flashcards. Her troops were undisciplined and lacked experience in the more modern forms of fighting. The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. 10th - 11th grade. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. France must now intervene herself in Flanders, Germany, Italy, and at sea. The Thirty Years War. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The Cardinal failed to maintain his push and he too was pushed back from Paris. Germany doesn't fully … 4 Phases of 30 Years War: ... French: Term. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). The German Electors had no faith in France . Longer term, expanded Spanish-French fighting drew Habsburg armies away from northern Germany, permitting Sweden to slowly recover. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War. In February 1637, Ferdinand died and his son succeeded him as Ferdinand III. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. With this internal disruption, France could not follow a more aggressive foreign policy. Led by a prince of the church, Cardinal Richelieu, France finally intervened in the German war only when the gains it had earlier made by stealth in the Rhineland were assaulted and eroded by Spain. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by, In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War. 30 years war DRAFT. Bernard of Weimar pushed back Gallas and the attack by Phillip IV failed to materialise. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. In the early months on 1635, France have vacillated over a wholesale military involvement in Europe. Spanish troops attacked the French in Trier in March 1635 (taking the archbishop prisoner), in an effort to establish an alternative route to the Spanish Road, which had been cut by France. In January 1643, his most competent minister, Olivares, was dismissed. Tags: Question 8 . Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "France and the Thirty Years War", The German Electors had no faith in France . The high taxes in France had made Richelieu a very unpopular man and the invading Catholic forces hoped to capitalise on this and be seen as a liberating force with religion not being compromised. In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in. Sweden did not recover from this debacle for several years. It was greatly aided by the cracking of Habsburg power occasioned by the revolt of Catalonia and another in Portugal in 1640. Regardless of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden marched into Bohemia and reached the suburbs of Prague. They loot Germany who can't fight back and loose 1/3 of their population. The other important battle of this last phase of the war was Rocroi (May 19, 1643), where the seasoned but sullen and shrunken Army of Flanders was defeated by a French army of 22,000 led by the ‘‘Great Conde´’’ (Louis II). Moreover, the Habsburg victory persuaded Olivares that the moment had come to throw the French off the right bank of the Rhine, where Richelieu had been planting garrisons since 1632. Bohemian phase. From September 1640 to October 1641, the full Imperial Diet met for the first time since 1613, to work out the negotiating positions of the Empire for any future peace talks. Christian IV of Denmark came into the fighting, principally because of his fear of the rise of Hapsburg power in N Germany; he openly avowed religious motives but hoped also to enlarge his German possessions. Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. 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