[27] He made the varsity football team[28][29] and was a starter as running back and linebacker in 1912, when he tackled the legendary Jim Thorpe of the Carlisle Indians. [221], Most Arab countries were skeptical about the "Eisenhower doctrine" because they considered "Zionist imperialism" the real danger. In 2009 he was named to the World Golf Hall of Fame in the Lifetime Achievement category for his contributions to the sport. He expanded its programs and rolled them into the new Cabinet-level agency of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers. Every president after Lyndon Johnson has also appointed staff to this position. In doing so, Eisenhower was popular among the liberal wing of the Republican Party. Eisenhower's health issues forced him to give up smoking and make some changes to his dietary habits, but he still indulged in alcohol. At that time the French and Chinese reconvened Geneva peace talks; Eisenhower agreed the US would participate only as an observer. The great bridge player and popularizer Ely Culbertson described his game as classic and sound with "flashes of brilliance", and said that "You can always judge a man's character by the way he plays cards. [198], Eisenhower continued Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China (Taiwan) as the legitimate government of China, not the Peking (Beijing) regime. He learned poker, which he called his "favorite indoor sport", in Abilene. In 2009 the commission chose the architect Frank Gehry to design the memorial. [85] Admiral Ernest J. Eisenhower was urged to respond directly and specify the various measures he had taken to purge the government of communists. [157] On August 26, 1959, he was aboard the maiden flight of Air Force One, which replaced the Columbine as the presidential aircraft.[158]. When the Soviet Union successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in late November 1955, Eisenhower, against the advice of Dulles, decided to initiate a disarmament proposal to the Soviets. Eisenhower stated prophetically that "this war would absorb our troops by divisions. [39] He played golf frequently during and after his presidency and was unreserved in expressing his passion for the game, to the point of golfing during winter; he ordered his golf balls painted black so he could see them better against snow on the ground. Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of its campaign commercials. [243] In late 1953, McCarthy declared on national television that the employment of communists within the government was a menace and would be a pivotal issue in the 1954 Senate elections. As others asked him about his political future, Eisenhower told one that he could not imagine wanting to be considered for any political job "from dogcatcher to Grand High Supreme King of the Universe", and another that he could not serve as Army Chief of Staff if others believed he had political ambitions. After the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa, Eisenhower oversaw the invasion of Sicily. [116], Eisenhower accepted the presidency of the university to expand his ability to promote "the American form of democracy" through education. [25] He then accepted an appointment to West Point in 1911. [265] He was treated by Dr. Paul Dudley White, a cardiologist with a national reputation, who regularly informed the press of the President's progress. "[278], Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower had resigned his permanent commission as General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. The Pact of Madrid, signed on September 23, 1953 by Francoist Spain and the United States, was a significant effort to break international isolation of Spain after World War II, together with the Concordat of 1953. After the war, he served as Army Chief of Staff (1945–1948), as president of Columbia University (1948–1953) and as the first Supreme Commander of NATO (1951–1952). [222], As the Cold War deepened, Dulles sought to isolate the Soviet Union by building regional alliances of nations against it. Nevertheless, Eisenhower thought that NATO would become a truly European alliance, with the American and Canadian commitments ending after about ten years. Nixon then convinced Eisenhower not to go ahead with the expanded campaign schedule and limit himself to the original schedule. Meanwhile, Columbia University's liberal faculty members became disenchanted with the university president's ties to oilmen and businessmen, including Leonard McCollum, the president of Continental Oil; Frank Abrams, the chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey; Bob Kleberg, the president of the King Ranch; H. J. Porter, a Texas oil executive; Bob Woodruff, the president of the Coca-Cola Corporation; and Clarence Francis, the chairman of General Foods. Joseph W. Martin as told to Donavan, Robert J. As a career military man, he naturally had little in common with the academics. [156], Eisenhower made full use of his valet, chauffeur, and secretarial support; he rarely drove or even dialed a phone number. Eisenhower, as well as the officers and troops under him, had learned valuable lessons in their previous operations, and their skills had all strengthened in preparation for the next most difficult campaign against the Germans—a beach landing assault. 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